Background:  Serum anti‐Mullerian hormone (AMH) is an established marker of the number of oocytes left within a woman’s ovaries (quantitative ovarian reserve). However, it is presently unclear if serum AMH also measures oocyte quality and therefore the chances of successful live‐birth pregnancy. The aim of this study was to determine if serum AMH assessed ovarian reserve correlates with chances of live birth (LB) and miscarriage following intra‐uterine insemination (IUI) treatment.
Methods:  In this retrospective study, serum AMH percentile charts were developed using AMH measurements from 1032 women undergoing routine infertility investigation. A total of 244 women undergoing IUI treatments were classified according to whether they had low (first quartile), normal (second and third quartiles) or high (fourth quartile) serum AMH concentrations relative to their age, and the subsequent pregnancy outcomes were analysed.
Results:  Serum AMH concentration fell with advancing maternal age and serum AMH concentrations were well correlated with quantitative ovarian reserve (antral follicle counts, AFC). The LB and miscarriage rates in each of the four AMH quartiles did not differ significantly from one another.
Conclusions:  Serum AMH is a useful marker of quantitative but not qualitative ovarian reserve as it correlates well with AFC, yet bears no relation to chances of live‐birth or miscarriage.