Objective:  Adiponectin and resistin have been postulated to play a role in the regulation of energy metabolism during pregnancy. However, relationship of adiponectin and resistin levels in umbilical serum, maternal serum and placenta with neonatal birth weight remains to be poorly understood. The purpose of the study was to clarify the correlations between adiponectin and resistin levels and neonatal birth weight.
Methods:  Enzyme immunoassay was used to measure the adiponectin and resistin levels in maternal and umbilical serum from 40 normal pregnant women (control group), 30 women with macrosomia (macrosomia group) and 30 women with fetal growth restriction (FGR group). Immunohistochemistry was used to measure adiponectin and resistin levels in placenta.
Results:  Serum adiponectin and resistin levels were significantly increased in control women compared with that in macrosomia mothers, but significantly decreased compared with that in FGR mothers. The levels of adiponectin and resistin in control babies were significantly higher than that in macrosomic babies, whereas significantly lower than that in FGR babies. The placental expressions of adiponectin and resistin in macrosomia, control and FGR group were gradually elevated, and there was a significant difference between them. Umbilical serum adiponectin levels and placental adiponectin expression were inversely correlated with birth weight. Umbilical serum levels and placental expression of resistin had positive correlation with maternal serum resistin and negative correlation with birth weight. In addition, maternal serum resistin levels were inversely correlated with birth weight.
Conclusion:  It is suggested that adiponectin and resistin play an important role in controlling body weight and may be related to the occurrence of fetal macrosomia and FGR.