A renewed National Cervical Screening Program (NCSP) was introduced in Australia in December 2017. Under the renewed NCSP, there are limited data to guide the management of discordant colposcopy and biopsy results after a liquid‐based cytology (LBC) finding of ‘possible high‐grade squamous intraepithelial lesion’ (pHSIL).

This study aims to determine the proportion of women referred with pHSIL who are found to have HSIL, identify influencing factors of women most at risk, and examine the role that cytopathology review plays in management decisions.

Materials and Methods
Two‐hundred and thirty‐two women presenting to a tertiary women’s hospital in Australia with pHSIL since December 2017 were identified. Women with HSIL following colposcopy directed biopsy were referred for treatment. When HSIL was not identified, these patients were referred for multidisciplinary clinicopathological review. Pathological outcomes and treatment recommendations are included.

Main outcome measures
The primary outcome of the study was histological confirmation of HSIL.

Primary outcome data were available for 182 women (78.5%); 62 (34.1%) had HSIL on histology, three (1.7%) had adenocarcinoma in situ (AIS) and one (1%) had cervical squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). There was no association between age and the presence of HSIL. The presence of human papillomavirus 16 and/or 18 increased the likelihood of HSIL on histology (relative risk 1.9; 95% CI 1.27–2.80, P = 0.002). Fifty‐nine (25.4%) women were referred for observation who had low‐grade squamous intraepithelial lesion/no dysplasia.

Clinicopathological review optimises management and triage of patients with pHSIL on referral cytology. Understanding outcomes in these patients informs counselling and management.