To examine outcomes in women following cervical screening detection of oncogenic human papillomavirus (HPV), with reflex cytology showing possible high‐grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (pHSIL).

Materials and methods
A retrospective observational study of 523 women seen in the Royal Women’s Hospital Colposcopy Clinic from 1 January 2018 to 31 July 2020.

Two hundred eighty‐two (53.9%) women had histology‐confirmed HSIL, encompassing CIN2 or worse (CIN2+), including seven cancers (1.3%) and two adenocarcinoma in situ (AIS) (0.4%). In 81.2% (229/282) of women with CIN2+, this was detected on cervical biopsy at initial colposcopy, with another 8.9% (25/282) of CIN2+ detected at cervical excision following initial colposcopy and the remaining 9.9% (28/282) at follow‐up colposcopy thereafter. When discordant cervical biopsy results were discussed at multidisciplinary meeting (MDM), 66.7% of women with pHSIL cytology upgraded to definite HSIL were found to have CIN2+, but only 20.8% when pHSIL cytology was retained and none when downgraded to low‐grade (LSIL) or normal. No significant difference was found in the proportion of CIN2+ based on patient age above or below 40, HPV16 and/or 18 versus non 16/18, or whether discordant findings were reviewed at MDM.

We propose a pathway for management of women with positive oncogenic HPV and reflex pHSIL cytology. MDM review is recommended when CIN2+ is not identified on cervical biopsy at initial colposcopy. Conservative management is safe with low risk of CIN2+ when LBC prediction of pHSIL is confirmed or downgraded at MDM with no high‐grade change on colposcopy or repeat cytology.