Recurrent miscarriage (RM), also known as recurrent pregnancy loss, is a distressing condition affecting around 1% of couples trying to conceive It can be very frustrating for both clinicians and patients as, despite intensive workup, no clear underlying pathology is forthcoming in at least 50% of couples. This leads to despair for patients and leaves clinicians at a loss for how to help. Desperation in both camps can promote the uptake of investigations and interventions of unproven benefit. The pathophysiology underpinning RM is incredibly diverse, involving areas such as haematology, endocrinology, immunology and genetics. During the seven to eight years since the UK Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists published guidelines on this topic in 2011, new evidence and guidance from expert authorities have emerged. Here, these important advances in this challenging field of clinical practice will be reviewed.