Background
Adenocarcinoma in situ of cervix is increasingly managed by local excision rather than hysterectomy and this study will ascertain if conservative management by excision alone is adequate.

Aims
To evaluate the long‐term outcomes of conservative management of adenocarcinoma in situ of cervix, particularly in relation to excisional margin status.

Materials and Methods
Retrospective analysis of women diagnosed with adenocarcinoma in situ and their management between 1992 and 2010 retrieved from the Victorian Cervical Cytology Registry, Australia. Failure of conservative treatment is defined by histologically proven adenocarcinoma in situ or adenocarcinoma at follow‐up after negative excisional margins.

Results
adenocarcinoma in situ of the cervix was managed primarily with cold knife cone biopsy or loop electrosurgical excision of the cervix. Most excisions were in one piece (83.4%) with average depth of 16.1 mm and 21.9% had involved excisional margins. Women with adenocarcinoma in situ on any excisional margin were more likely to have residual or recurrent disease (28.7%) compared with negative excisional margins (4.3%). Residual adenocarcinoma in situ was twice as common if adenocarcinoma in situ was present at endocervical (29.6%) and stromal (23.1%) margins compared with an ectocervical margin (13.6%). Cancer incidence at follow‐up was 2.3% for women with positive excisional margins compared to 1.3% with negative margins.

Conclusions
Women with adenocarcinoma in situ of cervix can be managed with local excisional procedures, best in single pieces to provide the important information on excisional margins. Adenocarcinoma in situ at endocervical and stromal excisional margins needs re‐excision or where appropriate, hysterectomy, while negative excisional margins have a low rate of recurrence and can be followed up with test of cure.