In many Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities, women and men are disproportionately affected by a range of risk factors for infertility including sexually transmitted infections, polycystic ovary syndrome and obesity. However, very little is known about the occurrence of infertility in this group or how Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people access fertility treatments. This opinion piece aims to reflect on current evidence concerning infertility risk factors and infertility per se among Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people, highlighting gaps in the literature about access and outcomes in this group.