Vulvar cancer is a relatively rare gynaecological malignancy, the treatment of which is associated with significant patient morbidity. With reports that the incidence of vulvar cancer is increasing, there is a rising need for improved preventive, diagnostic and therapeutic tools. Recent advances within genetics and epigenetics present possible approaches for addressing this need, by contributing to the clarification of the aetiology of this disease, identifying screening and drug targets and introducing the potential for personalised treatments. This paper reviews the genetic and epigenetic research undertaken to date within vulvar cancer, evaluates its potential for clinical application and identifies directions for future research.