The aim of this study was to compare biomarkers of cardiac dysfunction in cord blood in women with uncomplicated pregnancies and pregnancies complicated by maternal pre‐gestational and gestational diabetes and to correlate these findings with fetal echocardiography parameters of cardiac function.
Material and methods
Fetal echocardiographic assessment was performed longitudinally on 78 fetuses in the normal cohort and 32 in the diabetic cohort by measuring tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion, mitral annular plane systolic excursion, myocardial performance index, interventricular septum (IVS) thickness and left fractional shortening between July 2015 and December 2017. Cord blood samples were obtained at birth and levels of troponin I (TnI), B‐type natriuretic peptide (BNP) and the amnio terminal segment of its prohormone measured.
Women with diabetes had significantly higher median body mass index and mean z‐scores for BNP. Significant associations were observed between maternal diabetes and obesity and cord‐blood BNP z‐scores. The effect of diabetes on TnI levels were similar, with mean values higher in women with gestational diabetes compared to normal pregnancies; however, this difference did not reach statistical significance. These biomarker findings correlated with an increased IVS thickness in the diabetic group. No difference was demonstrated in the other cardiac function parameters measured.
Biochemical markers of cardiac dysfunction are elevated in infants of diabetic and obese mothers and correlated with increased IVS thickness.